Not all alcoholic drinks are equal – at least in terms of how much alcohol each drink contains and the drink's effect on your brain.
Any type of alcohol is produced through a process called fermentation. During this process, an ingredient such as yeast converts a sugar into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, which is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Different types of sugar are used to make different types of drinks.
Barley, wheat or rye – Beer
Grape pulp – Wine
Corn, wheat, barley, fruit, agave – Liquor
Alcohol by volume (ABV) is the standard measurement for the amount of ethanol is a standard drink. The ABV for a drink represents the number of milliliters of pure ethanol that are present in 100 milliliters of a drink. It is expressed as a percentage.
Alcohol Proof represents twice the percentage of ABV in a drink.
Bottle of beer with "5.5%
ABV" on label
If you pour 100 milliliters of the beer into a mug, 5.5% percent of it will be pure ethanol.
Bottle of liquor with "80 proof" on label
This drink has a 40% ABV.
In the U.S., the following are considered to be standard drinks:
12 ounces (5% ABV)
5 ounces (12% ABV)
12 ounces (5% ABV)
Due to the craft brewery boom in the U.S., you can now find beer with a wide range of ABVs. ranging a light lager with a 4.5% ABV to a heavy stout with as high as a 10% ABV. You should always check a bottle's label to see its ABV.
Because different types of drinks contain different amounts of alcohol, they will affect you to different degrees. In other words, drinking 12 ounces of liquor is not the same as drinking 12 ounces of beer. The more you drink of any alcohol - beer, wine or liquor - the higher your blood concentration , or BAC, will be.
Blood alcohol concentration is the percentage of alcohol (ethanol) in a person's blood. It serves as a standard method for gauging a person's intoxication. It is measured in terms of the number of grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood.
0.08% BAC = 0.08g of alcohol per every 100 mL of blood
Additionally, the combination of alcohol with certain types of controlled substances (marijuana, cocaine, heroin) and prescription medications (opioids) can affect a person's level of intoxication and lead to serious and potentially fatal consequences.
Alcohol flows through your blood and into the different regions of your brain, which can
affect your bodily functions. Consider the following:
Hypothalamus and pituitary
Regulate brain function and hormone release. Alcohol may, for instance, heighten one's sexual urges but decrease sexual performance.
Controls thought processing and consciousness. Alcohol makes it difficult to think clearly and slows processing of sensory information (seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching).
Regulates body temperature and functions such as breathing. Alcohol can lower body temperature, slow breathing and lead to drowsiness, coma or death.
Controls movement and balance. Alcohol makes it harder to control balance and may cause you to swagger or stumble.
Additionally, alcohol increases the levels of neurotransmitters in your brain such as GABA, glutamate and dopamine, which may initially cause pleasurable feelings but, over time, produce harmful physiological effects.
In other words, the higher your BAC, the greater effect on your brain and your body's ability to function in a normal way. The following are the generally recognized stages of intoxication:
|BAC||Stage||Signs and Symptoms|
|0.01 to 0.05||Subclinical||Little to no obvious effects. Nearly normal behavior.|
Signs and Symptoms
0.01 to 0.05
Little to no obvious effects. Nearly normal behavior.
Most states prohibit minors (under age 21) from operating a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in their blood (0.01% BAC or higher) and ban commercial driver's license holders from operating a commercial motor vehicle with a BAC of 0.04% or higher.
|0.03 to 0.12||Euphoria||Mild euphoria, making a person more social. Greater self-confidence, decreased inhibitions. Decrease in attention and judgment. Trouble with processing information. Difficulty with fine movements like writing.|
0.03 to 0.12
Mild euphoria, making a person more social. Greater self-confidence, decreased inhibitions. Decrease in attention and judgment. Trouble with processing information. Difficulty with fine movements like writing.
Most states deem a driver to be legally intoxicated with a BAC of 0.08% or higher.
|0.09 to 0.25||Excitement||Emotional instability and loss of judgment. Loss of comprehension and short-term memory. Loss of coordination and balance. Blurry vision and slurred speech. Possible sleepiness and vomiting.|
|0.18 – 0.30||Confusion||Confusion and disorientation. Extreme emotions (anger, fear, grief). Staggering and dizziness. Increased pain threshold. Lethargy and sleepiness. Lack of coordination.|
|0.25 to 0.40||Stupor||Can barely move, stand or walk. Virtually no response to stimuli. May vomit or experience incontinence. May fall in and out of consciousness.|
|0.35 to 0.50||Coma||Can barely move, stand or walk. Virtually no response to stimuli. May vomit or experience incontinence. May fall in and out of consciousness.|
|0.45 or higher||Death||Death due to respiratory arrest.|
0.09 to 0.25
Emotional instability and loss of judgment. Loss of comprehension and short-term memory. Loss of coordination and balance. Blurry vision and slurred speech. Possible sleepiness and vomiting.
0.18 – 0.30
Confusion and disorientation. Extreme emotions (anger, fear, grief). Staggering and dizziness. Increased pain threshold. Lethargy and sleepiness. Lack of coordination.
0.25 to 0.40
Can barely move, stand or walk. Virtually no response to stimuli. May vomit or experience incontinence. May fall in and out of consciousness.
0.35 to 0.50
0.45 or higher
Death due to respiratory arrest.